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Dis Colon Rectum. 2017 Jan;60(1):68-75.

Preoperative Immunonutrition and Elective Colorectal Resection Outcomes.

Author information

1
1 Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 2 Department of Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 3 Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 4 Department of Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington 5 Colon and Rectal Surgery, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 6 General Surgery, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Randomized controlled trials demonstrate the efficacy of arginine-enriched nutritional supplements (immunonutrition) in reducing complications after surgery. The effectiveness of preoperative immunonutrition has not been evaluated in a community setting.

OBJECTIVE:

This study aims to determine whether immunonutrition before elective colorectal surgery improves outcomes in the community at large.

DESIGN:

This is a prospective cohort study with a propensity score-matched comparative effectiveness evaluation.

SETTINGS:

This study was conducted in Washington State hospitals in the Surgical Care Outcomes Assessment Program from 2012 to 2015.

PATIENTS:

Adults undergoing elective colorectal surgery were selected.

INTERVENTIONS:

Surgeons used a preoperative checklist that recommended that patients take oral immunonutrition (237 mL, 3 times daily) for 5 days before elective colorectal resection.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Serious adverse events (infection, anastomotic leak, reoperation, and death) and prolonged length of stay were the primary outcomes measured.

RESULTS:

Three thousand three hundred seventy-five patients (mean age 59.9 ± 15.2 years, 56% female) underwent elective colorectal surgery. Patients receiving immunonutrition more commonly were in a higher ASA class (III-V, 44% vs 38%; p = 0.01) or required an ostomy (18% vs 14%; p = 0.02). The rate of serious adverse events was 6.8% vs 8.3% (p = 0.25) and the rate of prolonged length of stay was 13.8% vs 17.3% (p = 0.04) in those who did and did not receive immunonutrition. After propensity score matching, covariates were similar among 960 patients. Although differences in serious adverse events were nonsignificant (relative risk, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.49-1.16), prolonged length of stay (relative risk, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.58-1.01 p = 0.05) was lower in those receiving immunonutrition.

LIMITATIONS:

Patient compliance with the intervention was not measured. Residual confounding, including surgeon-level heterogeneity, may influence estimates of the effect of immunonutrition.

CONCLUSIONS:

Reductions in prolonged length of stay, likely related to fewer complications, support the use of immunonutrition in quality improvement initiatives related to elective colorectal surgery. This population-based study supports previous trials of immunonutrition, but shows a lower magnitude of benefit, perhaps related to compliance or a lower rate of adverse events, highlighting the value of community-based assessments of comparative effectiveness.

PMID:
27926559
PMCID:
PMC5147426
[Available on 2018-01-01]
DOI:
10.1097/DCR.0000000000000740
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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