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Nutr Neurosci. 2018 Apr;21(3):202-209. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2016.1262097. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

Effect of vitamin D supplementation as adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Author information

1
a Department of Clinical Nutrition , School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
2
b Pediatric Growth and Development Research Center , Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
3
c Department of Nutrition , School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
4
d Department of Psychiatry, Roozbeh Hospital , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Iran.
5
e Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition , School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
6
f Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics , School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
7
g Ziaean Hospital, School of Medicine, International Campus , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.
8
h Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Imam Hossein Hospital , Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Previous studies have shown that serum levels of vitamin D were lower in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children compared to healthy controls. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation as adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate on symptoms of children with ADHD.

METHODS:

Sixty-two children aged 5-12 years with a diagnosis of ADHD based on DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 2000IU vitamin D or placebo in addition to methylphenidate for 8 weeks. Symptoms severity was assessed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-Revised[S] (CPRS), ADHD rating scale-IV (ADHD-RS), and Weekly Parent Ratings of Evening and Morning Behavior (WPREMB) at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks. Anthropometric variables, dietary intake, physical activity, sun exposure, and side effects were assessed.

RESULTS:

Fifty-four participants completed the trial. After 8 weeks of supplementation, serum levels of 25(OH)D significantly increased in the vitamin D group. ADHD symptoms decreased significantly in both groups (P < 0.05). Evening symptoms and total score of WPREMB scale were significantly different at weeks 4 and 8 between the two groups (P = 0.013, 0.016, respectively), but no differences were found in symptoms by CPRS and ADHD-RS scales.

DISCUSSION:

Vitamin D supplementation as adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate improved ADHD evening symptoms. Future research is needed to clarify vitamin D effects as monotherapy in ADHD and its mechanism. The trial was registered in www.irct.ir is (IRCT201404222394N10).

KEYWORDS:

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised; Supplementation; Symptoms; Vitamin D

PMID:
27924679
DOI:
10.1080/1028415X.2016.1262097
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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