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Biochem J. 2017 Feb 15;474(4):521-537. doi: 10.1042/BCJ20160646. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Inhibition of SIK2 and SIK3 during differentiation enhances the anti-inflammatory phenotype of macrophages.

Author information

1
MRC Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, University of Dundee, Sir James Black Centre, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, U.K.
2
Division of Cell Signalling and Immunology, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Sir James Black Centre, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, U.K.
3
MRC Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, University of Dundee, Sir James Black Centre, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, U.K. kristopher.a.clark@gmail.com.

Abstract

The salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) control a novel molecular switch regulating macrophage polarization. Pharmacological inhibition of the SIKs induces a macrophage phenotype characterized by the secretion of high levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-10, and the secretion of very low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor α. The SIKs, therefore, represent attractive new drug targets for the treatment of macrophage-driven diseases, but which of the three isoforms, SIK1, SIK2 or SIK3, would be appropriate to target remains unknown. To address this question, we developed knock-in (KI) mice for SIK1, SIK2 and SIK3, in which we introduced a mutation that renders the enzymes catalytically inactive. Characterization of primary macrophages from the single and double KI mice established that all three SIK isoforms, and in particular SIK2 and SIK3, contribute to macrophage polarization. Moreover, we discovered that inhibition of SIK2 and SIK3 during macrophage differentiation greatly enhanced the production of IL-10 compared with their inhibition in mature macrophages. Interestingly, macrophages differentiated in the presence of SIK inhibitors, MRT199665 and HG-9-91-01, still produced very large amounts of IL-10, but very low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, even after the SIKs had been reactivated by removal of the drugs. Our data highlight an integral role for SIK2 and SIK3 in innate immunity by preventing the differentiation of macrophages into a potent and stable anti-inflammatory phenotype.

KEYWORDS:

HG-9-91-01; IL-10; TNF-α; inflammation; macrophage; salt-inducible kinase

PMID:
27920213
PMCID:
PMC5290485
DOI:
10.1042/BCJ20160646
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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