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Br J Sports Med. 2017 Jan;51(2):86-96. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096671. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Effectiveness of foot orthoses and shock-absorbing insoles for the prevention of injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
Discipline of Podiatry, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
2
La Trobe Sport and Exercise Medicine Research Centre, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
3
Department of Allied Health, Melbourne Health, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the evidence relating to the effectiveness of foot orthoses and shock-absorbing insoles for the prevention of musculoskeletal injury.

DESIGN:

Systematic review and meta-analysis.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES:

Clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of foot orthoses and shock-absorbing insoles for the prevention of injury.

DATA SOURCES:

Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus from their inception up to the first week of June 2016.

RESULTS:

11 trials that had evaluated foot orthoses and 7 trials that had evaluated shock-absorbing insoles were included. The median Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) score for trials that had evaluated foot orthoses and shock-absorbing insoles was 5 (range 3-8/10) and 3 (range 1-7/10), respectively. Meta-analysis found that foot orthoses were effective for preventing overall injuries (risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.94) and stress fractures (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.76), but not soft-tissue injuries (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.14). In contrast, shock-absorbing insoles were not effective for preventing overall injuries (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.16), stress fractures (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.32) or soft-tissue injuries (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.15).

CONCLUSIONS:

Foot orthoses were found to be effective for preventing overall injuries and stress fractures but not soft-tissue injuries, while shock-absorbing insoles were not found to be effective for preventing any injury. However, further well-designed trials will assist the accuracy and precision of the estimates of risk reduction as the quality of the included trials varied greatly.

KEYWORDS:

Injury prevention; Orthotics; Overuse injury; Sporting injuries

PMID:
27919918
DOI:
10.1136/bjsports-2016-096671
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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