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Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017 Mar;137:103-112. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.11.022. Epub 2016 Dec 19.

Two zinc-aminoclays' in-vitro cytotoxicity assessment in HeLa cells and in-vivo embryotoxicity assay in zebrafish.

Author information

1
Department of Predictive Toxicology, Korea Institute of Toxicology (KIT), Daejeon 34114, Republic of Korea.
2
Korea Railroad Research Institute (KRRI), 176 Cheoldobakmulkwan-ro, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 16105, Republic of Korea.
3
Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13120, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Predictive Toxicology, Korea Institute of Toxicology (KIT), Daejeon 34114, Republic of Korea; Human and Environmental Toxicology, School of Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea.
5
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21+ program), KAIST, 291 Daehakno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.
6
Advanced Nano-surface Research Group, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), Daejeon 34133, Republic of Korea.
7
Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751, Republic of Korea.
8
Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13120, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: dreamdbs@gachon.ac.kr.

Abstract

Two zinc-aminoclays [ZnACs] with functionalized primary amines [(-CH2)3NH2] were prepared by a simple sol-gel reaction using cationic metal precursors of ZnCl2 and Zn(NO3)2 with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane [APTES] under ambient conditions. Due to the facile interaction of heavy metals with primary amine sites and Zn-related intrinsic antimicrobial activity, toxicity assays of ZnACs nanoparticles (NPs) prior to their environmental and human-health applications are essential. However, such reports remain rare. Thus, in the present study, a cell viability assay of in-vitro HeLa cells comparing ZnCl2, Zn(NO3)2 salts, and ZnO (~50nm average diameter) NPs was performed. Interestingly, compared with the ZnCl2, and Zn(NO3)2 salts, and ZnO NPs (18.73/18.12/51.49µg/mL and 18.12/15.19/46.10µg/mL of IC50 values for 24 and 48h), the two ZnACs NPs exhibited the highest toxicity (IC50 values of 21.18/18.36µg/mL and 18.37/17.09µg/mL for 24 and 48h, respectively), whose concentrations were calculated on Zn elemental composition. This might be due to the enhanced bioavailability and uptake into cells of ZnAC NPs themselves and their positively charged hydrophilicity by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, particularly as ZnACs exist in cationic NP's form, not in released Zn2+ ionic form (i.e., dissolved nanometal). However, in an in-vivo embryotoxicity assay in zebrafish, ZnACs and ZnO NPs showed toxic effects at 50-100µg/mL (corresponding to 37.88-75.76 of Zn wt% µg/mL). The hatching rate (%) of zebrafish was lowest for the ZnO NPs, particularly where ZnAC-[(NO3)2] is slightly more toxic than ZnAC-[Cl2]. These results are all very pertinent to the issue of ZnACs' potential applications in the environmental and biomedical fields.

KEYWORDS:

Cytotoxicity; Embryotoxicity; HeLa cells; Zebrafish; Zn-aminoclays

PMID:
27915140
DOI:
10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.11.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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