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Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2018 Mar;268(2):129-143. doi: 10.1007/s00406-016-0749-7. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Oxidative stress in drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia and major depression: effects of disease acuity and potential confounders.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Magdeburg Hospital GmbH, Magdeburg, Germany.
2
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.
3
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Magdeburg, Leipziger Strasse 44, 39120, Magdeburg, Germany.
4
Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
5
Institute of Physiology, University of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.
6
Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences, Magdeburg, Germany.
7
Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, University of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.
8
Laboratory of Stress Monitoring, Hardegsen, Germany.
9
Sleep Laboratory, Department of Pneumology, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Goettingen-Weende gGmbH, Goettingen, Germany.
10
Department of Sleep Medicine and Clinical Chronobiology, Institute of Physiology, St. Hedwig Hospital, Charite, University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
11
Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
12
Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
13
Fachklinik für Neurologie Dietenbronn, Schwendi, Germany.
14
German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Goettingen, Germany.
15
Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil.
16
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Magdeburg, Leipziger Strasse 44, 39120, Magdeburg, Germany. johann.steiner@med.ovgu.de.
17
Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences, Magdeburg, Germany. johann.steiner@med.ovgu.de.

Abstract

Oxidative stress and immune dysregulation have been linked to schizophrenia and depression. However, it is unknown whether these factors are related to the pathophysiology or whether they are an epiphenomenon. Inconsistent oxidative stress-related findings in previous studies may have resulted from the use of different biomarkers which show disparate aspects of oxidative stress. Additionally, disease severity, medication, smoking, endocrine stress axis activation and obesity are potential confounders. In order to address some of these shortcomings, we have analyzed a broader set of oxidative stress biomarkers in our exploratory study, including urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), 8-OH-2-deoyxguanosine (8-OH-2-dG), and blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in acutely ill drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 22), major depression (n = 18), and controls (n = 43). Possible confounding factors were considered, and patients were followed-up after 6 weeks of treatment. No differences were observed regarding 8-OH-2-dG, MDA and GST. At baseline, 8-iso-PGF2α levels were higher in patients with schizophrenia (p = 0.004) and major depression (p = 0.037), with a trend toward higher SOD concentrations in schizophrenia (p = 0.053). After treatment, schizophrenia patients showed a further increase in 8-iso-PGF2α (p = 0.016). These results were not related to age, sex, disease severity, medication or adipose tissue mass. However, 8-iso-PGF2α was associated with smoking, endocrine stress axis activation, C-reactive protein levels and low plasma concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This study suggests a role of lipid peroxidation particularly in drug-naïve acutely ill schizophrenia patients and highlights the importance of taking into account other confounding factors in biomarker studies.

KEYWORDS:

8-Iso-prostaglandin F2α; 8-OH-2-deoyxguanosine; Depression; Glutathione S-transferase; Isoprostane; Malondialdehyde; Oxidative stress; Schizophrenia; Superoxide dismutase

PMID:
27913877
DOI:
10.1007/s00406-016-0749-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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