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Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 Feb 28;45(4):2124-2136. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkw1120.

Identification of 2-methylthio cyclic N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (ms2ct6A) as a novel RNA modification at position 37 of tRNAs.

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Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.
Institute of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz 90-924, Poland.
Department of Microbiology and The Center for RNA Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.


Transfer RNA modifications play pivotal roles in protein synthesis. N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) and its derivatives are modifications found at position 37, 3΄-adjacent to the anticodon, in tRNAs responsible for ANN codons. These modifications are universally conserved in all domains of life. t6A and its derivatives have pleiotropic functions in protein synthesis including aminoacylation, decoding and translocation. We previously discovered a cyclic form of t6A (ct6A) as a chemically labile derivative of t6A in tRNAs from bacteria, fungi, plants and protists. Here, we report 2-methylthio cyclic t6A (ms2ct6A), a novel derivative of ct6A found in tRNAs from Bacillus subtilis, plants and Trypanosoma brucei. In B. subtilis and T. brucei, ms2ct6A disappeared and remained to be ms2t6A and ct6A by depletion of tcdA and mtaB homologs, respectively, demonstrating that TcdA and MtaB are responsible for biogenesis of ms2ct6A.

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