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Development. 2017 Jan 1;144(1):163-172. doi: 10.1242/dev.140673. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

MS23, a master basic helix-loop-helix factor, regulates the specification and development of the tapetum in maize.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA gnan@stanford.edu walbot@stanford.edu.
2
Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and Delaware Biotechnology Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA.
3
Department of Biology, South University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.
4
Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Abstract

Successful male gametogenesis involves orchestration of sequential gene regulation for somatic differentiation in pre-meiotic anthers. We report here the cloning of Male Sterile23 (Ms23), encoding an anther-specific predicted basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor required for tapetal differentiation; transcripts localize initially to the precursor secondary parietal cells then predominantly to daughter tapetal cells. In knockout ms23-ref mutant anthers, five instead of the normal four wall layers are observed. Microarray transcript profiling demonstrates a more severe developmental disruption in ms23-ref than in ms32 anthers, which possess a different bHLH defect. RNA-seq and proteomics data together with yeast two-hybrid assays suggest that MS23 along with MS32, bHLH122 and bHLH51 act sequentially as either homo- or heterodimers to choreograph tapetal development. Among them, MS23 is the earliest-acting factor, upstream of bHLH51 and bHLH122, controlling tapetal specification and maturation. By contrast, MS32 is constitutive and independently regulated and is required later than MS23 in tapetal differentiation.

KEYWORDS:

Pre-meiotic male reproduction; Proteome; Regulatory hierarchy; Transcriptome

PMID:
27913638
DOI:
10.1242/dev.140673
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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