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J Biol Chem. 2017 Jan 20;292(3):884-897. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.743575. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Identification of Hepatic Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 3 as a Novel Target Gene Regulated by Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor δ.

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From the Department of Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California 94304.
From the Department of Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California 94304


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) regulates many genes involved in lipid metabolism. Hepatic lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) has critical functions in triglycerides transport and endoplasmic reticulum stress response due to its unique ability to catalyze the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into phospholipids. Previous studies identified liver X receptor as the transcription factor controlling LPCAT3 expression in mouse liver tissue. Here we show that the hepatic LPCAT3 gene is transcriptionally regulated by PPARδ. Adenovirus-mediated knockdown of PPARδ in cultured hepatic cells and liver tissue reduced LPCAT3 mRNA levels, and exogenous overexpression of PPARδ increased LPCAT3 mRNA expression. Activation of PPARδ in HepG2, Huh7, and Hepa 1-6 cells with its specific agonists increased LPCAT3 mRNA levels in all three hepatic cell lines. Through conducting sequence analysis, LPCAT3 promoter assays, and direct DNA binding assays, we have mapped the functional PPAR-responsive element to a proximal region from -135 to -123 of the LPCAT3 promoter that plays an essential role in mediating PPARδ-induced transactivation of the LPCAT3 gene. Finally, we have provided in vivo evidence showing that activation of PPARδ by agonist L165041 in mice increased hepatic LPCAT3 mRNA abundance and LPCAT enzymatic activity, which is associated with increased incorporations of arachidonate into liver phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Furthermore, transient liver-specific knockdown of LPCAT3 in mice affected PPARδ-mediated activation of several hepatic genes involving in FA metabolism. Altogether, our new findings identify LPCAT3 as a direct PPARδ target gene and suggest a novel function of PPARδ in regulation of phospholipid metabolism through LPCAT3.


gene regulation; lipid metabolism; liver metabolism; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR); phospholipid

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