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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Dec 13;113(50):E8169-E8177. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Stretchable multichannel antennas in soft wireless optoelectronic implants for optogenetics.

Author information

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801.
3
Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801.
4
Washington University Pain Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63130.
5
Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63130.
6
Biomedical Engineering, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63130.
7
School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080.
8
Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110.
9
Washington University Pain Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63130; jrogers@illinois.edu bruchasm@wustl.edu.
10
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801; jrogers@illinois.edu bruchasm@wustl.edu.

Abstract

Optogenetic methods to modulate cells and signaling pathways via targeted expression and activation of light-sensitive proteins have greatly accelerated the process of mapping complex neural circuits and defining their roles in physiological and pathological contexts. Recently demonstrated technologies based on injectable, microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes (μ-ILEDs) with wireless control and power delivery strategies offer important functionality in such experiments, by eliminating the external tethers associated with traditional fiber optic approaches. Existing wireless μ-ILED embodiments allow, however, illumination only at a single targeted region of the brain with a single optical wavelength and over spatial ranges of operation that are constrained by the radio frequency power transmission hardware. Here we report stretchable, multiresonance antennas and battery-free schemes for multichannel wireless operation of independently addressable, multicolor μ-ILEDs with fully implantable, miniaturized platforms. This advance, as demonstrated through in vitro and in vivo studies using thin, mechanically soft systems that separately control as many as three different μ-ILEDs, relies on specially designed stretchable antennas in which parallel capacitive coupling circuits yield several independent, well-separated operating frequencies, as verified through experimental and modeling results. When used in combination with active motion-tracking antenna arrays, these devices enable multichannel optogenetic research on complex behavioral responses in groups of animals over large areas at low levels of radio frequency power (<1 W). Studies of the regions of the brain that are involved in sleep arousal (locus coeruleus) and preference/aversion (nucleus accumbens) demonstrate the unique capabilities of these technologies.

KEYWORDS:

antenna; deep brain stimulation; stretchable electronics; wireless optogenetics; wireless power transmission

PMID:
27911798
PMCID:
PMC5167187
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1611769113
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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