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Oncotarget. 2017 Jun 6;8(23):37855-37865. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.13675.

Texture analysis of intermediate-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: prognosis and patients' selection of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and sorafenib.

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Department of Interventional Oncology, Guangdong Provincial Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou,China.
Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen, China.


Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and sorafenib combination treatment for unselected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is controversial. We explored the potential of texture analysis for appropriate patient selection. There were 261 HCCs included (TACE group: n = 197; TACE plus sorafenib (TACE+Sorafenib) group n = 64). We applied a Gabor filter and wavelet transform with 3 band-width responses (filter 0, 1.0, and 1.5) to portal-phase computed tomography (CT) images of the TACE group. Twenty-one textural parameters per filter were extracted from the region of interests delineated around tumor outline. After testing survival correlations, the TACE group was subdivided according to parameter thresholds in receiver operating characteristic curves and compared to TACE+Sorafenib group survival. The Gabor-1-90 (filter 0) was most significantly correlated with TTP. The TACE group was accordingly divided into the TACE-1 (Gabor-1-90 ≤ 3.6190) and TACE-2 (Gabor-1-90 > 3.6190) subgroups; TTP was similar in the TACE-1 subgroup and TACE+Sorafenib group, but shorter in the TACE-2 subgroup. Only wavelet-3-D (filter 1.0) correlated with overall survival (OS), and was used for subgrouping. The TACE-5 (wavelet-3-D ≤ 12.2620) subgroup and the TACE+Sorafenib group showed similar OS, while the TACE-6 (wavelet-3-D > 12.2620) subgroup had shorter OS. Gabor-1-90 and wavelet-3-D were consistent.Independent of tumor number or size, CT textural parameters are correlated with TTP and OS. Patients with lower Gabor-1-90 (filter 0) and wavelet-3-D (filter 1.0) should be treated with TACE and sorafenib. Texture analysis holds promise for appropriate selection of HCCs for this combination therapy.


hepatocellular carcinoma; sorafenib; texture analysis; transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

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