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Environ Res. 2017 Feb;153:63-72. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.11.014. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Does exposure to phthalates influence thyroid function and growth hormone homeostasis? The Taiwan Environmental Survey for Toxicants (TEST) 2013.

Author information

1
School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.
2
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Division of Preventive Medicine and Health Service Research, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
3
Research Center for Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
4
National Environmental Health Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan.
5
National Environmental Health Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; Institution of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan.
6
Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
7
National Environmental Health Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National United University, Taiwan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Previous epidemiologic and toxicological studies provide some inconsistent evidence that exposure to phthalates may affect thyroid function and growth hormone homeostasis.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the relations between exposure to phthalates and indicators of thyroid function and growth hormone homeostasis disturbances both among adults and minors.

METHODS:

We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 279 Taiwanese adults (≥18 years old) and 79 minors (<18 years old) in 2013. Exposure assessment was based on urinary biomarkers, 11 phthalate metabolites measured by using online liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Indicators of thyroid function included serum levels of thyroxine (T4), free T4, triiodothyronine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). Growth hormone homeostasis was measured as the serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3). We applied multivariate linear regression models to examine these associations after adjusting for covariates.

RESULTS:

Among adults, serum T4 levels were negatively associated with urinary mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (β=-0.028, P=0.043) and the sum of urinary di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite (β=-0.045, P=0.017) levels. Free T4 levels were negatively associated with urinary mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) (β=-0.013, P=0.042) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (β=-0.030, P=0.003) levels, but positively associated with urinary monoethyl phthalate (β=0.014, P=0.037) after adjustment for age, BMI, gender, urinary creatinine levels, and TBG levels. Postive associations between urinary MEHP levels and IGF-1 levels (β=0.033, P=0.006) were observed. Among minors, free T4 was positively associated with urinary mono benzyl phthalate levels (β=0.044, P=0.001), and IGF-1 levels were negatively associated with the sum of urinary DEHP metabolite levels (β=-0.166, P=0.041) after adjustment for significant covariance and IGFBP3.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to phthalates influences thyroid function and growth hormone homeostasis.

KEYWORDS:

Biomonitoring; Growth hormone; Phthalate metabolites; Taiwanese; Thyroid hormones

PMID:
27907809
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2016.11.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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