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Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Jan;85:620-626. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.11.072. Epub 2016 Nov 26.

Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 induced autophagy to inhibit migration and invasion of ovarian cancer.

Author information

1
Center for Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, PR China; Key Laboratory for Tumor Precision Medicine of Shaanxi Province, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, PR China.
2
Center for Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, PR China.
3
Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, PR China.
4
Center for Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, PR China; Key Laboratory for Tumor Precision Medicine of Shaanxi Province, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, PR China. Electronic address: zhaole2@mail.xjtu.edu.cn.
5
Center for Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, PR China; Key Laboratory for Tumor Precision Medicine of Shaanxi Province, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, PR China. Electronic address: lixu56@mail.xjtu.edu.cn.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Autophagy maintains cellular homeostasis through engulfing cytoplasmic proteins and organelles, and plays an important role in cancer initiation and progression. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, an active ingredient of Panax ginseng, exerts anti-cancer functions in various cancers. However, its molecular mechanisms, including its effect on autophagy, are not fully elucidated in tumor models.

METHODS:

Ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 was treated by various concentrations of 20(S)-Rg3. Markers of autophagy were detected by real-time PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Cell viability was observed by CCK8 assays and cell migration and invasion were examined with Transwell.

RESULTS:

20(S)-Rg3 induced autophagy in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner as indicated by the upregulation of autophagy-associated molecules including LC3 II, ATG5 and ATG7. The autophagy inhibitor chloroquine antagonized the inhibition of 20(S)-Rg3 on migration and invasion of SKOV3 cells, but slightly enhanced the impairment of 20(S)-Rg3 on cell viability. Immunohistochemistry staining of LC3, ATG5 and ATG7 on subcutaneous xenograft tissue sections from previously established nude mice models showed that 20(S)-Rg3 upregulated LC3, ATG5 and ATG7 as observed in cell models.

CONCLUSION:

Autophagy induction was one mechanism mediating inhibition of 20(S)-Rg3 on ovarian cancer invasive progression.

KEYWORDS:

Autophagy; Ginsenoside; Ovarian cancer

PMID:
27899249
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopha.2016.11.072
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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