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Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;40(3-4):633-643. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Cadmium Exposure is Associated with the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia.

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1
Department of Occupational Health, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cadmium is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant that accumulates in human body with a biological half-life exceeding 10 years. Cadmium exposure has been demonstrated to increase rates of cardiovascular diseases. Whether occupational cadmium exposure is associated with the increase in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and hence contributes to the risk of cardiovascular diseases is still equivocal. To test the hypothesis that exposure to cadmium is related to the prevalence of dyslipidemia, we examined the associations between blood cadmium concentration and the prevalence of dyslipidemia in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium in China.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional survey on demographic data, blood cadmium level and lipid profile in cadmium exposed workers from seven cadmium smelting factories in central and southwestern China was conducted. We measured blood cadmium concentration and lipid components of 1489 cadmium exposed workers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was compared across blood cadmium quartiles. Associations between the blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia were assessed using confounder adjusted linear and logistic regressions.

RESULTS:

The blood cadmium concentration was 3.61±0.84µg/L ( mean ±SD). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in this occupational population was 66.3%. Mean blood cadmium concentration of workers with dyslipedemia was significantly higher than that of workers without dyslipidemia (p <0.01). The prevalence of dyslipidemia increased dose-dependently with elevations in blood cadmium concentrations (p for trend <0.001). Elevated levels of blood cadmium were associated with BMI, education attainment, income, smoking status and duration of exposure (all p <0.01). Furthermore, the profile of blood lipid was obviously changed in this occupational population. The prevalence of high TC, high TG, Low HDL-C and high LDL-C rose with increases in blood cadmium levels dose-dependently (p for trend <0.001). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for dyslipidemia across the increasing blood cadmium quartiles were 1.21(1.16-1.55), 1.56(1.11-1.87), 1.79(1.26-2.25) respectively (referencing to 1.00; p for trend <0.001), after multivariate adjustment for BMI, education attainment, income, lifestyle factors and duration of exposure, the association between blood cadmium concentrations and the prevalence of dyslipidemia remained unchanged (all p for trend <0.001).

CONCLUSION:

Elevated blood cadmium concentration is associated with prevalence of dyslipidemia. Cadmium exposure could alter lipid metabolism in humans. It is imperative to control cadmium exposure of occupational population in cadmium related industries and reduce adverse health effects.

PMID:
27898410
DOI:
10.1159/000452576
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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