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Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017 Mar;33(3):212-217. doi: 10.1080/09513590.2016.1248933. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Pregestational type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes exhibit different sexual steroid profiles during pregnancy.

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a Institute for Mother and Child Research (IDIMI), University of Chile , Santa Rosa 1234, Santiago , Chile.
b Hospital Clínico San Borja Arriarán, Servicio de Salud Centro, Ministerio de Salud , Santa Rosa 1234, Santiago , Chile , and.
c School of Medicine, University of Chile , Independencia 1027, Santiago , Chile.


Higher androgen levels are observed in non-pregnant women with diabetes. Whether this hormonal profile is found during pregnancy is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the sexual steroids levels in pregnant women with pregestational type 2 (T2D) and gestational diabetes (GD) compared to healthy control (C) pregnant women during the second half of pregnancy. A prospective study of 69 pregnant women with T2D (n = 21), GD (n = 24) and control (C, n = 24) was followed up during the second half of gestation. Clinical assessments and blood samples were collected at 26.7 (25-27.8); 34 (32-34.9) and 37.5 (37-40) weeks of gestation. Androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estrogens, estradiol/testosterone (E/T) ratio, insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, were measured. Testosterone, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were higher in T2D compared with C at each sampling point during pregnancy, even after adjusting for BMI and age. Estrogens levels and estradiol/testosterone ratio were lower in T2D and GD compared with C. Hyperandrogenemia, and higher insulin resistance is observed in T2D, but not in GD during pregnancy. Decreased estrogen and E/T ratio found in T2D and GD suggests a diminished aromatase activity during gestation. T2D and GD are associated with specific changes in sexual steroids and insulin resistance levels during pregnancy.


Androgens insulin resistance; diabetes; estrogens; gestational diabetes; hyperandrogenism; polycystic ovary syndrome; pregnancy

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