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Paediatr Anaesth. 2017 Jan;27(1):66-76. doi: 10.1111/pan.13036. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

The timing and prevalence of intraoperative hypotension in infants undergoing laparoscopic pyloromyotomy at a tertiary pediatric hospital.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
2
Data Analytics and Enterprise Reporting, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
4
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
5
Department of Biostatistics in Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Intraoperative hypotension may be associated with adverse outcomes in children undergoing surgery. Infants and neonates under 6 months of age have less autoregulatory cerebral reserve than older infants, yet little information exists regarding when and how often intraoperative hypotension occurs in infants.

AIMS:

To better understand the epidemiology of intraoperative hypotension in infants, we aimed to determine the prevalence of intraoperative hypotension in a generally uniform population of infants undergoing laparoscopic pyloromyotomy.

METHODS:

Vital sign data from electronic records of infants who underwent laparoscopic pyloromyotomy with general anesthesia at a children's hospital between January 1, 1998 and October 4, 2013 were analyzed. Baseline blood pressure (BP) values and intraoperative BPs were identified during eight perioperative stages based on anesthesia event timestamps. We determined the occurrence of relative (systolic BP <20% below baseline) and absolute (mean arterial BP <35 mmHg) intraoperative hypotension within each stage.

RESULTS:

A total of 735 full-term infants and 82 preterm infants met the study criteria. Relative intraoperative hypotension occurred in 77%, 72%, and 58% of infants in the 1-30, 31-60, and 61-90 days age groups, respectively. Absolute intraoperative hypotension was seen in 21%, 12%, and 4% of infants in the 1-30, 31-60, and 61-90 days age groups, respectively. Intraoperative hypotension occurred primarily during surgical prep and throughout the surgical procedure. Preterm infants had higher rates of absolute intraoperative hypotension than full-term infants.

CONCLUSIONS:

Relative intraoperative hypotension was routine and absolute intraoperative hypotension was common in neonates and infants under 91 days of age. Preterm infants and infants under 61 days of age experienced the highest rates of absolute and relative intraoperative hypotension, particularly during surgical prep and throughout surgery.

KEYWORDS:

anesthesia; blood pressure; hypotension; infant; perioperative period; pyloric stenosis

PMID:
27896911
DOI:
10.1111/pan.13036
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