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Cell Host Microbe. 2016 Dec 14;20(6):716-730. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2016.10.010. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Enterocyte Purge and Rapid Recovery Is a Resilience Reaction of the Gut Epithelium to Pore-Forming Toxin Attack.

Author information

1
Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, RIDI UPR 9022, 67000 Strasbourg, France. Electronic address: kwang-zin.lee@agrar.uni-giessen.de.
2
Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, RIDI UPR 9022, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
3
UMR 1347, Université de Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, 17 Rue Sully, BP 86 510, 21065 Dijon Cedex, France.
4
Inserm U1109, MN3T, 3 avenue Molière, 67200 Strasbourg, France; Université de Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg, France; LabEx Medalis, Université de Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg, France; Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS), 67000 Strasbourg, France.
5
Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire, CNRS/INSERM/University of Strasbourg-UMR 7104, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404 Illkirch, France.
6
UMR 1347, Université de Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, 17 Rue Sully, BP 86 510, 21065 Dijon Cedex, France; Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, AgroSup Dijon, PAM UMR A 02.102, 21000 Dijon, France.
7
Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, RIDI UPR 9022, 67000 Strasbourg, France. Electronic address: D.Ferrandon@ibmc-cnrs.unistra.fr.

Abstract

Besides digesting nutrients, the gut protects the host against invasion by pathogens. Enterocytes may be subjected to damage by both microbial and host defensive responses, causing their death. Here, we report a rapid epithelial response that alleviates infection stress and protects the enterocytes from the action of microbial virulence factors. Intestinal epithelia exposed to hemolysin, a pore-forming toxin secreted by Serratia marcescens, undergo an evolutionarily conserved process of thinning followed by the recovery of their initial thickness within a few hours. In response to hemolysin attack, Drosophila melanogaster enterocytes extrude most of their apical cytoplasm, including damaged organelles such as mitochondria, yet do not lyse. We identify two secreted peptides, the expression of which requires CyclinJ, that mediate the recovery phase in which enterocytes regain their original shape and volume. Epithelial thinning and recovery constitute a fast and efficient response to intestinal infections, with pore-forming toxins acting as alarm signals.

PMID:
27889464
DOI:
10.1016/j.chom.2016.10.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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