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JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2016 Dec 26;9(24):2527-2538. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2016.09.034. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Acquired Aseptic Intracardiac Shunts Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Systematic Review.

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Institute of Heart Sciences, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valladolid, Spain.
Institute of Heart Sciences, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valladolid, Spain. Electronic address:
Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Quebec, Quebec, Canada.
Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.



The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, mechanisms, features, and management of aseptic intracardiac shunts (AICS).


AICS following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are an uncommon and barely described complication.


A systematic review was performed of all published cases of AICS following TAVR, and the incidence, predictors, main features, management, and related outcomes were analyzed.


A total of 31 post-TAVR AICS were gathered. After excluding transapical fistulas, the 28 remaining cases corresponded with an incidence of about 0.5%. Mean age and mean logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score were 80 ± 11 years and 19.2 ± 8.3%, respectively. Prior radiation therapy for cancer was present in 14.3%, and 42.8% had severe calcification of the aortic valve. TAVR was undertaken using balloon-expandable prostheses in the majority of cases (85.7%), via the transapical approach in one-third. Median time from TAVR to diagnosis was 21 days (interquartile range: 7 to 30 days), with intraprocedural suspicion in 12 cases (42.9%) and a mean Qp/Qs ratio of 1.8 ± 0.6. The most common location for AICS was the interventricular septum (60.7%). Heart failure was frequent (46.4%), but 14 patients (50%) remained asymptomatic. Medical treatment (71.4%) was associated with poor outcomes (30-day mortality rate 25%), especially in symptomatic patients (35% vs. 0%; p = 0.020) and in those with higher Qp/Qs ratios (1.9 ± 0.6 vs. 1.4 ± 0.1), while cardiac surgery (3.6%), and percutaneous closure (25%) led to good outcomes after a median follow-up period of 3 months (interquartile range: 1 to 9 months).


Post-TAVR AICS are uncommon but have high 30-day mortality if left untreated, especially in symptomatic patients. Percutaneous closure was feasible and safe in symptomatic patients but remains controversial in asymptomatic subjects.


TAVR; cardiac shunts; percutaneous closure devices

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