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Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2017 Feb;25(1):119-125. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2016.08.011.

Skin Color and Pigmentation in Ethnic Skin.

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Skin Sciences Program, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:


Skin coloration is highly diverse, partly due to the presence of pigmentation. Color variation is related to the extent of ultraviolet radiation exposure, as well as other factors. Inherent skin coloration arises from differences in basal epidermal melanin amount and type. Skin color is influenced by both the quantity and distribution of melanocytes. The effectiveness of inherent pigmentation for protecting living cells also varies. This article discusses skin color, pigmentation, and ethnicity in relation to clinical practice. Color perception, skin typing/classification, and quantitation of pigmentation are reviewed in relation to ethnicity, environmental stresses/irritants, and potential treatment effects.


Ethnicity; Hyperpigmentation; Individual typology angle; Melanocyte; Pigmentation; Skin color; Skin type; Ultraviolet radiation

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