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Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017 Jul;33(7):1069-1081. doi: 10.1007/s10554-016-1031-9. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

Unravelling cardiovascular disease using four dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

Author information

1
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
2
Netherlands Heart Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. j.j.m.westenberg@lumc.nl.
4
Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Knowledge of normal and abnormal flow patterns in the human cardiovascular system increases our understanding of normal physiology and may help unravel the complex pathophysiological mechanisms leading to cardiovascular disease. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as a suitable technique that enables visualization of in vivo blood flow patterns and quantification of parameters that could potentially be of prognostic value in the disease process. In this review, current image processing tools that are used for comprehensive visualization and quantification of blood flow and energy distribution in the heart and great vessels will be discussed. Also, imaging biomarkers extracted from 4D flow CMR will be reviewed that have been shown to distinguish between normal and abnormal flow patterns. Furthermore, current applications of 4D flow CMR in the heart and great vessels will be discussed, showing its potential as an additional diagnostic modality which could aid in disease management and timing of surgical intervention.

KEYWORDS:

4-Dimensional flow; Blood flow; Cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Velocity

PMID:
27888419
PMCID:
PMC5489572
DOI:
10.1007/s10554-016-1031-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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