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Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Jun;61(6). doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600659. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Phytochemicals enhance antioxidant enzyme expression to protect against NSAID-induced oxidative damage of the gastrointestinal mucosa.

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Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.


The gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa provides the first protective barrier for digested food and xenobiotics, which are easily attacked by toxic substances. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin, diclofenac, indomethacin, and ketoprofen, are widely used in clinical medicine, but these drugs may cause oxidative stress, leading to GI damage such as ulcers. Lansoprazol, omeprazole, and other clinical drugs are widely used to treat duodenal and gastric ulcers and have been shown to have multiple biological functions, such as antioxidant activity and the ability to upregulate antioxidant enzymes in vivo. Therefore, the reduction of oxidative stress may be an effective curative strategy for preventing and treating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced ulcers of the GI mucosa. Phytochemicals, such as dietary phenolic compounds, phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavonoids, gingerols, carotenes, and organosulfur, are common antioxidants in fruits, vegetables, and beverages. A large amount of evidence has demonstrated that natural phytochemicals possess bioactivity and potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial benefits, and they can prevent digestive disease processes. In this review, we summarize the literature on phytochemicals with biological effects, such as angiogenic, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiulceration effects, and their related mechanisms are also discussed.


Antioxidant enzymes; NSAIDs; Oxidative stress; Phytochemicals; Ulcer

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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