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Sci Technol Adv Mater. 2014 Mar 18;15(2):024601. eCollection 2014 Apr.

Germanium epitaxy on silicon.

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State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Department of Optical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, People's Republic of China.
State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100083, People's Republic of China.


With the rapid development of on-chip optical interconnects and optical computing in the past decade, silicon-based integrated devices for monolithic and hybrid optoelectronic integration have attracted wide attention. Due to its narrow pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si technology, epitaxial Ge-on-Si has become a significant material for optoelectronic device applications. In this paper, we describe recent research progress on heteroepitaxy of Ge flat films and self-assembled Ge quantum dots on Si. For film growth, methods of strain modification and lattice mismatch relief are summarized, while for dot growth, key process parameters and their effects on the dot density, dot morphology and dot position are reviewed. The results indicate that epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials will play a bigger role in silicon photonics.


epitaxial growth; germanium films; germanium quantum dots; self assembly; strain modification

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