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Eur J Pharmacol. 2017 Jan 5;794:37-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.11.028. Epub 2016 Nov 19.

Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, attenuates obesity-induced inflammation in the nodose ganglion, hypothalamus, and skeletal muscle of mice.

Author information

1
Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692, Japan.
2
Ikuyaku Medical Research Department, Ikuyaku, Integrated Value Development Division, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, 17-10 Nihonbashi-Koamicho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-8405, Japan.
3
Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692, Japan; AMED-CREST, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, 1-7-1 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0004, Japan. Electronic address: nakazato@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

Chronic inflammation in systemic organs, such as adipose tissue, nodose ganglion, hypothalamus, and skeletal muscles, is closely associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Because sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects by promoting urinary excretion of glucose and subsequent caloric loss, we investigated the effect of canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, on obesity-induced inflammation in neural tissues and skeletal muscles of mice. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed male C57BL/6J mice were treated with canagliflozin for 8 weeks. Canagliflozin attenuated the HFD-mediated increases in body weight, liver weight, and visceral and subcutaneous fat weight. Additionally, canagliflozin decreased blood glucose as well as the fat, triglyceride, and glycogen contents of the liver. Along with these metabolic corrections, canagliflozin attenuated the increases in the mRNA levels of the proinflammatory biomarkers Iba1 and Il6 and the number of macrophages/microglia in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus. In the skeletal muscle of HFD-fed obese mice, canagliflozin decreased inflammatory cytokine levels, macrophage accumulation, and the mRNA level of the specific atrophic factor atrogin-1. Canagliflozin also increased the mRNA level of insulin-like growth factor 1, protected against muscle mass loss, and restored the contractile force of muscle. These findings suggested that SGLT2 inhibition disrupts the vicious cycle of obesity and inflammation, not only by promoting caloric loss, but also by suppression of obesity-related inflammation in both the nervous system and skeletal muscle.

KEYWORDS:

High-fat diet; Hypothalamus; Inflammation; Nodose ganglion; Skeletal muscle; Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor

PMID:
27876617
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.11.028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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