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J Chem Phys. 2016 Nov 21;145(19):194103.

Optimized parameter selection reveals trends in Markov state models for protein folding.

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Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.


As molecular dynamics simulations access increasingly longer time scales, complementary advances in the analysis of biomolecular time-series data are necessary. Markov state models offer a powerful framework for this analysis by describing a system's states and the transitions between them. A recently established variational theorem for Markov state models now enables modelers to systematically determine the best way to describe a system's dynamics. In the context of the variational theorem, we analyze ultra-long folding simulations for a canonical set of twelve proteins [K. Lindorff-Larsen et al., Science 334, 517 (2011)] by creating and evaluating many types of Markov state models. We present a set of guidelines for constructing Markov state models of protein folding; namely, we recommend the use of cross-validation and a kinetically motivated dimensionality reduction step for improved descriptions of folding dynamics. We also warn that precise kinetics predictions rely on the features chosen to describe the system and pose the description of kinetic uncertainty across ensembles of models as an open issue.

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