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Front Physiol. 2016 Nov 7;7:486. eCollection 2016.

Redox Mechanism of Reactive Oxygen Species in Exercise.

Author information

1
Department of Kinesiology, California State University-Chico Chico, CA, USA.
2
Department of Physical Education, Anhui University Anhui, China.
3
Affiliated Ezhou Central Hospital at Medical School of Wuhan UniversityHubei, China; Radiologic Sciences and Respiratory Therapy Division, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University College of MedicineColumbus, OH, USA.
4
Radiologic Sciences and Respiratory Therapy Division, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University College of MedicineColumbus, OH, USA; Interdisciplinary Biophysics Graduate Program, The Ohio State UniversityColumbus, OH, USA.
5
Department of Physical Education, China University of Geosciences Beijing, China.

Abstract

It is well known that regular exercise can benefit health by enhancing antioxidant defenses in the body. However, unaccustomed and/or exhaustive exercise can generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress-related tissue damages and impaired muscle contractility. ROS are produced in both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Mitochondria, NADPH oxidases and xanthine oxidases have all been identified as potential contributors to ROS production, yet the exact redox mechanisms underlying exercise-induced oxidative stress remain elusive. Interestingly, moderate exposure to ROS is necessary to induce body's adaptive responses such as the activation of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Dietary antioxidant manipulation can also reduce ROS levels and muscle fatigue, as well as enhance exercise recovery. To elucidate the complex role of ROS in exercise, this review updates on new findings of ROS origins within skeletal muscles associated with various types of exercises such as endurance, sprint and mountain climbing. In addition, we will examine the corresponding antioxidant defense systems as well as dietary manipulation against damages caused by ROS.

KEYWORDS:

ROS; dietary antioxidant; exercise; exercise-induced adaptation; skeletal muscle

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