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Sci Rep. 2016 Nov 22;6:37241. doi: 10.1038/srep37241.

Co-occurrence of Local Anisotropic Gradient Orientations (CoLlAGe): A new radiomics descriptor.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44120, USA.


In this paper, we introduce a new radiomic descriptor, Co-occurrence of Local Anisotropic Gradient Orientations (CoLlAGe) for capturing subtle differences between benign and pathologic phenotypes which may be visually indistinguishable on routine anatomic imaging. CoLlAGe seeks to capture and exploit local anisotropic differences in voxel-level gradient orientations to distinguish similar appearing phenotypes. CoLlAGe involves assigning every image voxel an entropy value associated with the co-occurrence matrix of gradient orientations computed around every voxel. The hypothesis behind CoLlAGe is that benign and pathologic phenotypes even though they may appear similar on anatomic imaging, will differ in their local entropy patterns, in turn reflecting subtle local differences in tissue microarchitecture. We demonstrate CoLlAGe's utility in three clinically challenging classification problems: distinguishing (1) radiation necrosis, a benign yet confounding effect of radiation treatment, from recurrent tumors on T1-w MRI in 42 brain tumor patients, (2) different molecular sub-types of breast cancer on DCE-MRI in 65 studies and (3) non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinomas) from benign fungal infection (granulomas) on 120 non-contrast CT studies. For each of these classification problems, CoLlAGE in conjunction with a random forest classifier outperformed state of the art radiomic descriptors (Haralick, Gabor, Histogram of Gradient Orientations).

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