Send to

Choose Destination
Chem Biol Interact. 2017 Jan 5;261:63-79. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2016.11.018. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

Balkan Endemic Nephropathy - Still continuing enigma, risk assessment and underestimated hazard of joint mycotoxin exposure of animals or humans.

Author information

Department of General and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, Students Campus, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria. Electronic address:


The spreading of mycotoxic nephropathy in animals/humans was studied. The possible etiological causes provoking this nephropathy were carefully reviewed and analyzed. The natural content of the most frequent nephrotoxic mycotoxins in target feedstuffs/foods were investigated, in addition to their significance for development of renal damages in endemic areas. An estimation of the level of exposure of humans to the nephrotoxic mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), is made. The possible synergism or additive effects between some target mycotoxins in the development of nephropathy is also covered. The significance of joint mycotoxin interaction and masked mycotoxins, in addition to some newly isolated fungal toxic agents in the complicated etiology of mycotoxic nephropathy ranged in Balkan countries is discussed. The importance of some target fungal species which can induce kidney damages was evaluated. The morphological/ultrastructural, functional and toxicological similarities between human and animal nephropathy are studied. The possible hazard of low content of combinations of some target mycotoxins in food or feedstuff ingested by pigs, chickens or humans under natural conditions is evaluated and a risk assessment was made. Some different but more effective manners of prophylaxis and/or prevention against OTA contamination of feedstuffs/foods are suggested. A survey was made in regard to the best possible ways of veterinary hygiene control of OTA-exposed animals at slaughter time for preventing the entrance of OTA in commercial feedstuffs/food channels with a view to reduce the possible health hazard for humans. The economic efficacy and applicability of such preventive measures is additionally discussed and some practical suggestions are made.


Balkan endemic nephropathy; Hygiene control; Masked mycotoxins; Mycotoxin interaction; Preventive measures; Risk assessment

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center