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Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017 Sep 15;251:94-108. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2016.11.009. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

Author information

1
Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
2
Centre for Evolutionary and Integrative Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
3
Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India; Centre for Evolutionary and Integrative Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Electronic address: subashpeter@yahoo.com.

Abstract

Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg-1) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T3 and T4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na+/K+-ATPase, H+/K+-ATPase and Na+/NH4+-ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential pattern of mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit isoforms; nkaα1a, nkaα1b and nkaα1c and the shift in nkaα1a and nkaα1b isoforms expression after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish, presents transcriptomic evidence for a modified Na+/K+ ion transporter system in these fish. Collectively, our data thus provide evidence for an interactive immune-stress response in an air-breathing fish, where the patterns of cortisol-thyroid hormone interaction, the ion transporter functions and the non-specific immune responses are reversed by hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish.

KEYWORDS:

Cortisol; Fish; H(+)/K(+)-ATPase; Immune response; Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoforms; Na(+)/NH(4)(+)-ATPase; Stress response; Thyroid hormone

PMID:
27871800
DOI:
10.1016/j.ygcen.2016.11.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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