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J Neurosci Res. 2017 Jan 2;95(1-2):617-625. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23895.

Sex differences in the human visual system.

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Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada.


This Mini-Review summarizes a wide range of sex differences in the human visual system, with a primary focus on sex differences in visual perception and its neural basis. We highlight sex differences in both basic and high-level visual processing, with evidence from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies. We argue that sex differences in human visual processing, no matter how small or subtle, support the view that females and males truly see the world differently. We acknowledge some of the controversy regarding sex differences in human vision and propose that such controversy should be interpreted as a source of motivation for continued efforts to assess the validity and reliability of published sex differences and for continued research on sex differences in human vision and the nervous system in general.


cerebral laterality; human visual system; object recognition; sex-linked disorders; visual perception

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