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Neuroimage. 2017 Feb 1;146:58-70. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.11.043. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Visual cortex responses reflect temporal structure of continuous quasi-rhythmic sensory stimulation.

Author information

1
Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, 58 Hillhead Street, G12 8QB Glasgow, UK. Electronic address: christian.keitel@glasgow.ac.uk.
2
Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, 58 Hillhead Street, G12 8QB Glasgow, UK.

Abstract

Neural processing of dynamic continuous visual input, and cognitive influences thereon, are frequently studied in paradigms employing strictly rhythmic stimulation. However, the temporal structure of natural stimuli is hardly ever fully rhythmic but possesses certain spectral bandwidths (e.g. lip movements in speech, gestures). Examining periodic brain responses elicited by strictly rhythmic stimulation might thus represent ideal, yet isolated cases. Here, we tested how the visual system reflects quasi-rhythmic stimulation with frequencies continuously varying within ranges of classical theta (4-7Hz), alpha (8-13Hz) and beta bands (14-20Hz) using EEG. Our findings substantiate a systematic and sustained neural phase-locking to stimulation in all three frequency ranges. Further, we found that allocation of spatial attention enhances EEG-stimulus locking to theta- and alpha-band stimulation. Our results bridge recent findings regarding phase locking ("entrainment") to quasi-rhythmic visual input and "frequency-tagging" experiments employing strictly rhythmic stimulation. We propose that sustained EEG-stimulus locking can be considered as a continuous neural signature of processing dynamic sensory input in early visual cortices. Accordingly, EEG-stimulus locking serves to trace the temporal evolution of rhythmic as well as quasi-rhythmic visual input and is subject to attentional bias.

KEYWORDS:

Brain oscillation; Brain-computer interface; Entrainment; Frequency tagging; Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS); Steady-state response (SSR)

PMID:
27867090
PMCID:
PMC5312821
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.11.043
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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