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Atten Defic Hyperact Disord. 2017 Mar;9(1):47-65. doi: 10.1007/s12402-016-0208-3. Epub 2016 Nov 19.

The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

Author information

1
Institute for Development, Research, Advocacy and Applied Care (IDRAAC), Beirut, Lebanon. jfayyad@idraac.org.
2
Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
3
Department of Nervous System Diseases, Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.
4
Center for Reducing Health Disparities, UC Davis Health System, Sacramento, CA, USA.
5
College of Medicine, Al-Qadisiya University, Diwaniya Governorate, Iraq.
6
Section of Psychiatric Epidemiology-LIM 23, Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.
7
Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muñiz, Mexico, DF, Mexico.
8
IRCCS St John of God Clinical Research Centre/IRCCS Centro S. Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy.
9
National School of Public Health, Management and Professional Development, Bucharest, Romania.
10
Department of Psychiatry, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.
11
Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
12
Shenzhen Institute of Mental Health, Shenzhen, China.
13
Shenzhen Kangning Hospital, Shenzhen, China.
14
Institute for Development, Research, Advocacy and Applied Care (IDRAAC), Beirut, Lebanon.
15
Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Balamand University, Beirut, Lebanon.
16
Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, St George Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.
17
Department of Psychiatry, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Tai Po, Hong Kong.
18
IMIB-Arrixaca, CIBERESP-Murcia, Subdirección General de Salud Mental y Asistencia Psiquiátrica, Servicio Murciano de Salud, El Palmar, Murcia, Spain.
19
School of Psychology, University of Ulster, Londonderry, UK.
20
Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
21
National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru.
22
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
23
El Bosque University, Bogota, Colombia.
24
Trimbos-Instituut, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, Netherlands.
25
Center for Excellence on Research in Mental Health, CES University, Medellin, Colombia.
26
Chronic Diseases Research Center (CEDOC) and Department of Mental Health, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

Abstract

We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2.8% across surveys and was higher in high (3.6%)- and upper-middle (3.0%)- than low-/lower-middle (1.4%)-income countries. Conditional prevalence of current ADHD averaged 57.0% among childhood cases and 41.1% among childhood subthreshold cases. Adult ADHD was significantly related to being male, previously married, and low education. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with DSM-IV/CIDI anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and significantly associated with role impairments (days out of role, impaired cognition, and social interactions) when controlling for comorbidities. Treatment seeking was low in all countries and targeted largely to comorbid conditions rather than to ADHD. These results show that adult ADHD is prevalent, seriously impairing, and highly comorbid but vastly under-recognized and undertreated across countries and cultures.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; Comorbidity; Disability epidemiology; Impairment; Prevalence; Treatment

PMID:
27866355
PMCID:
PMC5325787
DOI:
10.1007/s12402-016-0208-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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