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Environ Int. 2017 Feb;99:177-184. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.11.011. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Exposure to UV filters during summer and winter in Danish kindergarten children.

Author information

1
Dept. of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; International Center for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Dept. of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; International Center for Research and Research Training in Endocrine Disruption of Male Reproduction and Child Health (EDMaRC), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address: Hanne.Frederiksen@regionh.dk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Ultra violet (UV) filters with known or suspected endocrine disrupting properties are widely used in sunscreens and other personal care products, clothing, food packaging and many other consumer products. Danish kindergarten children have sunscreens applied daily during summer to prevent skin burns.

OBJECTIVES:

To estimate the assumed contribution of sunscreens to the total exposure to UV filters, we measured the urinary excretion of UV filters during summer and winter in kindergarten children.

METHODS:

Spot- and first morning urines were collected during a summer and a winter day in 2013. A total of 266 urine samples were collected from 55 children and were analysed for content of benzophenone (BP), benzophenone-1 (BP-1), benzophenone-2 (BP-2), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzophenone (BP-7), 4-methyl-benzophenone (4-MBP), 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-HBP), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor (4-MBC), and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC) by LC-MS/MS.

RESULTS:

Of the analysed UV filters, the children excreted predominantly BP-1, BP-3 and 4-HBP. The urine levels were significantly higher in summer samples compared to winter samples, however exposure during winter was still evident. Furthermore, children with the highest concentrations of UV filters in summer urines also tended to be among those with the highest winter levels.

CONCLUSION:

Exposures to UV filters during summertime can partly be explained by the intended use of UV filters in sunscreens, which is considered to be beneficial for children during outdoor activities. However, exposure to UV filters all year round together with large inter-individual variation indicate that children's exposure to UV filters also comes from other consumer items, presumably highly influenced by the general lifestyle of an individual child: this is completely unintended, without benefit, and potentially harmful.

KEYWORDS:

4-hydroxy-benzophenone (4-HBP); Benzophenone-1 (BP-1); Benzophenone-3 (BP-3); Endocrine disruptors; Sunscreens; UV filters

PMID:
27865524
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2016.11.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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