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Pediatr Clin North Am. 2016 Dec;63(6):985-997. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2016.07.003. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Stigma and Minority Stress as Social Determinants of Health Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: Research Evidence and Clinical Implications.

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Department of Sociomedical Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th Street, Room 549B, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:
Chronic Disease Epidemiology: Social & Behavioral Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, 60 College Street, Suite 316, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.


In this article, we review theory and evidence on stigma and minority stress as social/structural determinants of health among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. We discuss different forms of stigma at individual (eg, identity concealment), interpersonal (eg, victimization), and structural (eg, laws and social norms) levels, as well as the mechanisms linking stigma to adverse health outcomes among LGBT youth. Finally, we discuss clinical (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) and public health (eg, antibullying policies) interventions that effectively target stigma-inducing mechanisms to improve the health of LGBT youth.


Health; LGBT youth; Minority stress; Stigma

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