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J Sch Nurs. 2017 Feb;33(1):18-29. doi: 10.1177/1059840516679710. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

Density and Proximity of Licensed Tobacco Retailers and Adolescent Smoking.

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1 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee College of Nursing, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
2 University of Virginia School of Nursing, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
3 College of Nursing, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.


Adolescent smoking prevention is an important issue in health care. This literature review describes the theoretical concept of ecological model for adolescent smoking and tobacco retailers and summarizes previous studies on the association between the density and proximity of tobacco retailers and adolescent smoking. We reviewed nine studies on tobacco retailer density and proximity in relation to adolescent smoking, published in peer-reviewed journals between 2004 and 2014. The tobacco retailer density and proximity were correlated with adolescent lifetime smoking, past 12-month smoking, past 30-day smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. School nurses or other school health professionals may need to include the density and proximity of tobacco retailer factors around schools in school-based tobacco-use prevention programs. Health policy makers may need to consider zoning or licensing restrictions of tobacco retailers around schools for adolescent smoking prevention.


alcohol/tobacco/drug use prevention; health education; middle/junior/high school; policies/procedures; school nurse education

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