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Urology. 2017 Jul;105:113-117. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2016.11.012. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

Should Hypoechoic Lesions on Transrectal Ultrasound Be Sampled During Magnetic Resonance Imaging-targeted Prostate Biopsy?

Author information

1
Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
2
Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
3
Molecular Imaging Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
4
Center for Interventional Oncology, National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
5
Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Electronic address: pintop@mail.nih.gov.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether supplemental biopsy of hypoechoic ultrasound lesions (HUL) incidentally found during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion-targeted prostate biopsy results in improved prostate cancer (PCa) detection.

METHODS:

Patients underwent MRI-TRUS-targeted biopsy as part of an ongoing prospective trial from August 2007 to February 2015. For men with HUL, the biopsy pathology of HUL and MRI lesions was classified according to the updated 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system. The detection of PCa by MRI-targeted biopsy with and without HUL biopsy was compared.

RESULTS:

Of 1260 men in the trial, 106 underwent biopsy of 119 HULs. PCa was diagnosed in 52 out of 106 men (49%) by biopsy of either MRI lesions or HUL. Biopsy of HUL in addition to MRI lesions resulted in 4 additional diagnoses of high-grade (ISUP grades 3-5) PCa versus biopsy of MRI lesions alone (20 vs 16 men, P = .046). Three of these cases were upgraded from lower grade (ISUP grades 1-2) PCa on MRI-guided biopsy alone, and only 1 case (1% of cohort) was diagnosed that would have been missed by MRI-guided biopsy alone. Supplemental biopsy of HUL did not change the PCa risk category in 96% (102 out of 106) of men with HUL.

CONCLUSION:

Supplemental biopsy of HUL yields a small increase in the detection of higher grade PCa as compared with biopsy of MRI lesions alone. As upgrading is rare, routinely screening for HUL during MRI-targeted biopsy remains controversial.

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