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Cell. 2016 Nov 17;167(5):1170-1187. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.09.018.

Ever-Changing Landscapes: Transcriptional Enhancers in Development and Evolution.

Author information

1
Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
2
Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
3
Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address: wysocka@stanford.edu.

Abstract

A class of cis-regulatory elements, called enhancers, play a central role in orchestrating spatiotemporally precise gene-expression programs during development. Consequently, divergence in enhancer sequence and activity is thought to be an important mediator of inter- and intra-species phenotypic variation. Here, we give an overview of emerging principles of enhancer function, current models of enhancer architecture, genomic substrates from which enhancers emerge during evolution, and the influence of three-dimensional genome organization on long-range gene regulation. We discuss intricate relationships between distinct elements within complex regulatory landscapes and consider their potential impact on specificity and robustness of transcriptional regulation.

PMID:
27863239
PMCID:
PMC5123704
[Available on 2017-11-17]
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2016.09.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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