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Phys Rev Lett. 2016 Nov 4;117(19):190501. Epub 2016 Nov 2.

Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber.

Yin HL1,2, Chen TY1,2, Yu ZW3,4, Liu H1,2, You LX5, Zhou YH2,3, Chen SJ5, Mao Y1,2, Huang MQ1,2, Zhang WJ5, Chen H6, Li MJ6, Nolan D6, Zhou F7, Jiang X1,2, Wang Z5, Zhang Q1,2,7, Wang XB2,3,7, Pan JW1,2.

Author information

1
National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.
2
CAS Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.
3
State Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
4
Data Communication Science and Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100191, China.
5
State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China.
6
Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831, USA.
7
Jinan Institute of Quantum Technology, Jinan, Shandong 250101, China.

Abstract

Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) with the decoy-state method negates security threats of both the imperfect single-photon source and detection losses. Lengthening the distance and improving the key rate of quantum key distribution (QKD) are vital issues in practical applications of QKD. Herein, we report the results of MDIQKD over 404 km of ultralow-loss optical fiber and 311 km of a standard optical fiber while employing an optimized four-intensity decoy-state method. This record-breaking implementation of the MDIQKD method not only provides a new distance record for both MDIQKD and all types of QKD systems but also, more significantly, achieves a distance that the traditional Bennett-Brassard 1984 QKD would not be able to achieve with the same detection devices even with ideal single-photon sources. This work represents a significant step toward proving and developing feasible long-distance QKD.

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