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Clin Microbiol Rev. 2017 Jan;30(1):233-276.

Chromoblastomycosis.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil queiroz.telles@uol.com.br.
2
CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
3
Special Mycology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
4
Dermato-Immunology Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Marituba, Pará, Brazil.
5
Microbiology, Parasitology and Pathology Graduation Program, Department of Basic Pathology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
6
Dermatology Service and Mycology Department, Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico.
7
Infectious Diseases Unit, 3rd Department of Pediatrics, Aristotle University School of Health Sciences and Hippokration General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
8
Department of Dermatology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
9
Department of Medicine, Federal University of Maranhão, Vila Bacanga, Maranhão, Brazil.
10
Dermato-Immunology Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Pará Federal University, Marituba, Pará, Brazil.
11
Division of Infectious Diseases, Paulista Medical School, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
12
Departments of Medicine, Pediatrics, and Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine of Cornell University, New York, New York, USA.

Abstract

Chromoblastomycosis (CBM), also known as chromomycosis, is one of the most prevalent implantation fungal infections, being the most common of the gamut of mycoses caused by melanized or brown-pigmented fungi. CBM is mainly a tropical or subtropical disease that may affect individuals with certain risk factors around the world. The following characteristics are associated with this disease: (i) traumatic inoculation by implantation from an environmental source, leading to an initial cutaneous lesion at the inoculation site; (ii) chronic and progressive cutaneous and subcutaneous tissular involvement associated with fibrotic and granulomatous reactions associated with microabscesses and often with tissue proliferation; (iii) a nonprotective T helper type 2 (Th2) immune response with ineffective humoral involvement; and (iv) the presence of muriform (sclerotic) cells embedded in the affected tissue. CBM lesions are clinically polymorphic and are commonly misdiagnosed as various other infectious and noninfectious diseases. In its more severe clinical forms, CBM may cause an incapacity for labor due to fibrotic sequelae and also due to a series of clinical complications, and if not recognized at an early stage, this disease can be refractory to antifungal therapy.

KEYWORDS:

black fungi; chromoblastomycosis; chromomycosis; melanized fungi; muriform (sclerotic) cells; neglected disease

PMID:
27856522
PMCID:
PMC5217794
DOI:
10.1128/CMR.00032-16
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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