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Invest New Drugs. 2017 Feb;35(1):95-104. doi: 10.1007/s10637-016-0406-z. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

A phase I trial investigating pulsatile erlotinib in combination with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in advanced biliary tract cancers.

Author information

1
Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2220 Pierce Avenue, PRB 777, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA. Laura.goff@vanderbilt.edu.
2
Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Laura.goff@vanderbilt.edu.
3
Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2220 Pierce Avenue, PRB 777, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA.
4
Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
5
Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
6
Center for Quantitative Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
7
Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.
8
Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center at Cool Springs, Franklin, TN, USA.
9
Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Abstract

Advanced biliary tract cancers (ABTC) are among the deadliest malignancies with limited treatment options after progression on standard-of-care chemotherapy, which includes gemcitabine (GEM) and oxaliplatin (OX). The epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib has been explored in ABTC with modest efficacy. Erlotinib given continuously may antagonize the action of chemotherapy against cycling tumor cells, but pulsatile dosing of erlotinib with chemotherapy may improve efficacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of pulsatile erlotinib with GEMOX. This was a single-institution phase Ib study that enrolled adult patients with unresectable or metastatic biliary tract, pancreas, duodenal, or ampullary carcinomas that have not received any prior treatment for their disease. Dose escalation followed a standard 3 + 3 design, and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were any treatment-related, first course non-hematologic grade ≥ 3 toxicity, except nausea/vomiting, or grade 4 hematologic toxicity. A dose expansion cohort in ABTC was treated at the MTD. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled and 4 dose levels were explored. The MTD was erlotinib 150 mg + GEM 800 mg/m2 + OX 85 mg/m2. DLTs were diarrhea and anemia. Most frequent toxicities were nausea (78 %), fatigue (71 %), neuropathy (68 %), and diarrhea (61 %), predominantly grade 1-2. In the ABTC patients, the objective response and disease control rates were 29 % and 94 %, respectively, and median overall survival was 18 months. Erlotinib plus GEMOX was well tolerated. Encouraging anti-tumor activity was seen as evidenced by a high disease control rate and longer median OS than standard chemotherapy in the patients with ABTC.

KEYWORDS:

Biliary tract cancers; Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin; Phase Ib trial; Pulsatile erlotinib

PMID:
27853997
PMCID:
PMC5306261
DOI:
10.1007/s10637-016-0406-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Compliance with ethical standards Conflicts of interest LWG has served as a consultant for Celgene and has institutional research funding from Astellas Pharma, Pfizer, Onxy, SunPharma, Lilly, and Bristol-Myers Squibb. DBC has served as a consultant for Merrimack and has institutional research funding from Synta, Incyte, Celgene, Hoffman-LaRoxhe, EMD-Serono, and Oncolytics Biotech. KBD has an immediate family member who is employed by Ardent Health Services. KKC has institutional research funding from Pfizer, Boston Biomedical, MedImmune, Onyx, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Bristol-Myers Squibb. JG has institutional research funding from AstraZeneca. EC has served on advisory boards for Castle Biosciences, Taiho, EMD-Serono, Amgen, Lilly, Advaxis, Bayer and Merrimack. JB has served as a consultant for Celgene, Genentech, Aduro, Boston Biomedical, Janssen, Cornerstone, Symphogen, and Bayer and has institutional research funding from Genentech, Abbvie, Taiho, Bayer, 5Prime, Phoenix, Incyte, and Vertex. Funding This study was supported in part by Astellas Pharmaceutics, Inc. and the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center Support Grant (2P30 CA068485–14). Erlotinib was supplied for the study by Astellas Pharmaceutics, Inc. The ITR is supported by the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, the TJ Martell Foundation, and the Robert J. Kleberg, Jr. and Helen C. Kleberg Foundation. Ethical approval All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent Informed consent was obtained for all individual participants included in the study.

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