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J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Nov 16;5(11). pii: e004336.

Clinical Outcomes of Vasospastic Angina Patients Presenting With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Author information

1
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea cardiochoi@skku.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Coronary vasospasm is an important pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the clinical features and prognosis of vasospastic angina (VA) patients presenting with ACS (VAACS) are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of VAACS patients without significant coronary artery stenosis.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

A total of 986 VA patients confirmed by ergonovine provocation test were analyzed. VAACS was defined as VA patients visiting the emergency room with documented electrocardiographic changes, significant arrhythmias, or elevated cardiac biomarkers. VA patients with elevated cardiac biomarkers were further considered to have myocardial infarction (MI; VAMI). During 4.4 years of median follow-up, we investigated major adverse cardiac events including cardiac death, MI, revascularization, and rehospitalization because of recurrent angina. The VAACS group consisted of 149 patients (15.1%), and VAMI occurred in 81 patients (8.2%). VAACS patients were younger and had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, MI history, and higher levels of inflammatory markers compared with non-VAACS patients. In multivariable Cox regression analyses, VAACS patients were associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% CI 1.14-2.37; P=0.007) and recurrent MI hazard ratio, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.35-4.87; P=0.004). In addition, VAMI patients had an increased risk of major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.11-2.76; P=0.016) and recurrent MI (hazard ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.09-5.40; P=0.03).

CONCLUSION:

VAACS patients showed worse clinical outcomes, driven mainly by recurrent MI. Therefore, intensive medical treatment might be required in VAACS patients.

KEYWORDS:

acute coronary syndrome; myocardial infarction; variant angina; vasospasm

PMID:
27852592
PMCID:
PMC5210370
DOI:
10.1161/JAHA.116.004336
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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