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Eur J Pharmacol. 2017 Aug 5;808:8-13. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.11.013. Epub 2016 Nov 14.

Role of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) in immune responses to fungal infections.

Author information

1
Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2
Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: e.mortaz@uu.nl.
3
Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Tehran Organization, Tehran, Iran.
4
Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Recent years have seen the rise of invasive fungal infections, which are mostly due to the increase in patients. Three major opportunistic fungal species in human are Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans that pose the biggest concern for these immunocompromised patients' mortality. The growing occurrence of opportunistic fungal infections has sparked the interest to understand defense mechanisms against pathogenic fungi. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as a part of innate immune system, play an important role for recognizing the invading microorganisms and initiating sufficient immune responses. Recent studies have revealed an integrated role for TLR, signaling inactivating immune defense mechanisms against exact fungi. Among TLRs, TLR2 and TLR4 are the major participants in fungi recognition. The present paper highlights the role of TLR participants in fungal recognition as well as their mechanisms.

KEYWORDS:

Aspergillus fumigatus; Fungal infection; Innate immunity; Pathogen-associated molecular pattern; Toll-like receptors

PMID:
27851904
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.11.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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