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Eur J Cancer Prev. 2018 Jul;27(4):379-383. doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000331.

Meat and haem iron intake in relation to glioma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London.
2
Unit of Nutrition, Environment and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology.
3
Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå.
4
Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), Lyon, France.
5
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
6
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø.
7
Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-based Cancer Research, Oslo, Norway.
8
Genetic Epidemiology Group, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
9
Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen.
10
Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus.
11
Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.
12
German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg.
13
Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition (DIfE), Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Germany.
14
Hellenic Health Foundation.
15
Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology and Nutrition in Public Health, Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, WHO Collaborating Center for Nutrition and Health, University of Athens Medical School.
16
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
17
Department of Neurology, Eginition Hospital, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.
18
Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Institute (ISPO), Florence.
19
Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan.
20
Cancer Registry and Histopathology Unit, 'Civic - M.P. Arezzo' Hospital, ASP Ragusa.
21
Unit of Epidemiology, Regional Health Service, Grugliasco (TO).
22
Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin.
23
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
24
Department for Determinants of Chronic Diseases (DCD), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven.
25
Department of Social & Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
26
Department of Epidemiology, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands.
27
Public Health Directorate, Asturias.
28
Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology-IDIBELL. L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona.
29
Andalusian School of Public Health, Research Insititute Biosanitary Granada, University Hospital Granada/University of Granada, Granada.
30
CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid.
31
Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, Regional Government of the Basque Country, Donostia.
32
Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Council, IMIB-Arrixaca, Murcia.
33
Navarra Public Health Institute.
34
Navarra Institute for Health Research (IdiSNA), Pamplona, Spain.
35
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
36
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Abstract

Diets high in red or processed meat have been associated positively with some cancers, and several possible underlying mechanisms have been proposed, including iron-related pathways. However, the role of meat intake in adult glioma risk has yielded conflicting findings because of small sample sizes and heterogeneous tumour classifications. The aim of this study was to examine red meat, processed meat and iron intake in relation to glioma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. In this prospective cohort study, 408 751 individuals from nine European countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine intake of red meat, processed meat, total dietary iron and haem iron in relation to incident glioma. During an average follow-up of 14.1 years, 688 incident glioma cases were diagnosed. There was no evidence that any of the meat variables (red, processed meat or subtypes of meat) or iron (total or haem) were associated with glioma; results were unchanged when the first 2 years of follow-up were excluded. This study suggests that there is no association between meat or iron intake and adult glioma. This is the largest prospective analysis of meat and iron in relation to glioma and as such provides a substantial contribution to a limited and inconsistent literature.

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