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Spinal Cord. 2017 Apr;55(4):346-354. doi: 10.1038/sc.2016.157. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

Prevalence and associated factors of pain in the Swiss spinal cord injury population.

Author information

1
Empowerment, Participation and Social Integration Unit, Swiss Paraplegic Research (SPF), Nottwil, Switzerland.
2
Department of Health Sciences and Health Policy, University of Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland.
3
Division of Sports and Exercise Medicine, Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
4
Centre for Pain Medicine, Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil, Switzerland.
5
Clinique Romande de Réadaptation, Sion, Switzerland.
6
Department of Intensive Care, Pain and operative Medicine, Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil, Switzerland.

Abstract

STUDY DESIGN:

Population-based, cross-sectional.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine pain prevalence and identify factors associated with chronic pain in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in Switzerland.

SETTING:

Swiss SCI Cohort Study (SwiSCI).

METHODS:

Pain characteristics were assessed using an adapted version of the International SCI Pain Basic Data Set, adding one item of the SCI Secondary Conditions Scale to address chronic pain. Pain prevalence was calculated using stratification over demographic, SCI-related and socioeconomic characteristics; odds ratios (adjusted for non-response) for determinants of severity of chronic pain were calculated using stereotype logistic regressions.

RESULTS:

Pain (in the past week) was reported by 68.9% and chronic pain by 73.5% (significant 36.9%) of all participants (N=1549; 28% female). Most frequently reported pain type was musculoskeletal (71.1%). Back/spine was the most frequently reported pain location (54.6%). Contrasting the 'significant' to the 'none/mild' category of chronic pain, adjusted odds ratios were 1.54 (95% CI: 1.18-2.01; P<0.01) for women (vs men); 6.64 (95% CI: 3.37-11.67; P<0.001) for the oldest age group 61+ (vs youngest (16-30)); 3.41 (95% CI: 2.07-5.62; P<0.001) in individuals reporting severe financial hardship (vs no financial hardship). Individuals reporting specific SCI-related health conditions were 1.41-2.92 (P<0.05) times more likely to report chronic pain as 'significant' rather than 'none/mild' compared with those without the respective condition.

CONCLUSIONS:

Pain is highly prevalent in individuals with SCI living in Switzerland. Considered at risk for chronic pain are women, older individuals and individuals with financial hardship and specific secondary health conditions. Longitudinal studies are necessary to identify predictors for the development of pain and its chronification.

PMID:
27845355
DOI:
10.1038/sc.2016.157
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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