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Cancer Control. 2016 Oct;23(4):373-382.

Clinical Considerations of Risk, Incidence, and Outcomes of Breast Cancer in Sexual Minorities.

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Comprehensive Breast Program, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.



Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women. Limited research exists on the impact of sexual orientation on overall risk of and mortality from breast cancer. We sought to summarize the medical literature on breast cancer in sexual minority women and identify possible disparities in this population.


A comprehensive literature search was conducted for English-language studies in peer-reviewed medical journals that referenced breast cancer and sexual minority, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender individuals. Articles published between January 2000 and November 2015 were included. They were reviewed for relevance to breast cancer risk stratification, breast cancer mortality, breast reconstruction, and transgender issues.


Behavioral risks, reproductive risks, and risks associated with decreased access to health care may all affect outcomes for sexual minorities with breast cancer. Limited studies have mixed results regarding mortality associated with breast cancer in sexual minorities due to an inconsistent reporting of sexual orientation.


Overall, the research examining breast cancer in sexual minority women remains limited. This finding is likely due to limitations in the reporting of sexual orientation within large databases, thus making broader-scale research difficult.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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