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Neural Plast. 2016;2016:3597209. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Neuroinflammation in Autism: Plausible Role of Maternal Inflammation, Dietary Omega 3, and Microbiota.

Author information

1
Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
2
Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, INRA, 33000 Bordeaux, France; Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, Bordeaux University, 33000 Bordeaux, France; Inserm, U1141, Hôpital Robert Debré, Paris, France; Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
3
Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, INRA, 33000 Bordeaux, France; Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, Bordeaux University, 33000 Bordeaux, France; Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada.
4
Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, INRA, 33000 Bordeaux, France; Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, Bordeaux University, 33000 Bordeaux, France; Département de Biologie, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université de Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, Lyon, France.
5
Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, INRA, 33000 Bordeaux, France; Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, Bordeaux University, 33000 Bordeaux, France; OptiNutriBrain International Associated Laboratory (NutriNeuro France-INAF Canada), Bordeaux, France.

Abstract

Several genetic causes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. However, more recent work has highlighted that certain environmental exposures early in life may also account for some cases of autism. Environmental insults during pregnancy, such as infection or malnutrition, seem to dramatically impact brain development. Maternal viral or bacterial infections have been characterized as disruptors of brain shaping, even if their underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Poor nutritional diversity, as well as nutrient deficiency, is strongly associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in children. For instance, imbalanced levels of essential fatty acids, and especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are observed in patients with ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia). Interestingly, PUFAs, and specifically n-3 PUFAs, are powerful immunomodulators that exert anti-inflammatory properties. These prenatal dietary and immunologic factors not only impact the fetal brain, but also affect the microbiota. Recent work suggests that the microbiota could be the missing link between environmental insults in prenatal life and future neurodevelopmental disorders. As both nutrition and inflammation can massively affect the microbiota, we discuss here how understanding the crosstalk between these three actors could provide a promising framework to better elucidate ASD etiology.

PMID:
27840741
PMCID:
PMC5093279
DOI:
10.1155/2016/3597209
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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