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Trends Mol Med. 2016 Dec;22(12):1025-1034. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2016.10.009. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Small RNA Modifications: Integral to Function and Disease.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA.
2
Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.
3
Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA. Electronic address: cqi@medicine.nevada.edu.
4
Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. Electronic address: tmjlowe@ucsc.edu.

Abstract

Small RNAs have the potential to store a secondary layer of labile biological information in the form of modified nucleotides. Emerging evidence has shown that small RNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) harbor a diversity of RNA modifications. These findings highlight the importance of RNA modifications in the modulation of basic properties such as RNA stability and other complex physiological processes involved in stress responses, metabolism, immunity, and epigenetic inheritance of environmentally acquired traits, among others. High-resolution, high-throughput methods for detecting, mapping and screening these small RNA modifications now provide opportunities to uncover their diagnostic potential as sensitive disease markers.

KEYWORDS:

ARM-seq; DM-tRNA-seq; LC-MS/MS; RNA editing; RNA modification; tRNA-derived small RNAs

PMID:
27840066
PMCID:
PMC5135593
DOI:
10.1016/j.molmed.2016.10.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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