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Urology. 2017 Mar;101:15-20. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2016.09.058. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

The Modern Metabolic Stone Evaluation in Children.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.
2
Department of Urology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA. Electronic address: douglas-storm@uiowa.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate metabolic abnormalities in a contemporary pediatric population after their first stone episode. The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis is increasing and therefore the etiologies contributing to today's pediatric stone formation may also be changing.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

A retrospective review of all consecutive children presenting after their first kidney stone between 2000 and 2014 was performed. We compared demographic data, serum chemistry results, and 24-hour urine results and treatments.

RESULTS:

One hundred thirteen children with a mean age of 11 years (5 months to 18 years) who presented with their first kidney stone episode between 2000 and 2014 were evaluated. Sixteen patients (14%) were found to have an underlying genetic or systemic disease. Overall, there was a low rate of serum chemistry abnormalities. The most common abnormalities found within the 24-hour urine evaluation included low urine volume (89%) and hypocitraturia (68%). Hypercalciuria occurred rarely (11%).

CONCLUSION:

We identified a low rate of underlying genetic or systemic diseases contributing to modern pediatric stone presentation and an increased proportion of idiopathic stones. Our study differs from historical findings by identifying a low rate of hypercalciuria and a high rate of low urine volume and hypocitraturia, suggestive of changing metabolic abnormalities contributing to modern pediatric stone disease.

PMID:
27838366
DOI:
10.1016/j.urology.2016.09.058
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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