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Int J Infect Dis. 2017 Mar;56:229-236. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.11.001. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

Ultrasound for patients in a high HIV/tuberculosis prevalence setting: a needs assessment and review of focused applications for Sub-Saharan Africa.

Author information

1
Lighthouse Clinic, Kamuzu Central Hospital, Area 33, Mzimba Street, PO Box 106, Lilongwe, Malawi. Electronic address: echnatom@web.de.
2
Lighthouse Clinic, Kamuzu Central Hospital, Area 33, Mzimba Street, PO Box 106, Lilongwe, Malawi.
3
Centre of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Division of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
4
Centre of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Division of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Paediatric Pneumology and Immunology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.
5
Lighthouse Clinic, Kamuzu Central Hospital, Area 33, Mzimba Street, PO Box 106, Lilongwe, Malawi; Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, North Carolina, USA; Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi.
6
Centre of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Division of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Abstract

Ultrasound is increasingly used in point-of-care applications and has great potential to support the diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially in resource-limited settings. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 100 Malawian patients with a clinical indication for ultrasound. Furthermore, the literature on point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in Sub-Saharan Africa was reviewed to establish its applicability, most frequent indications, findings, and implications for treatment, and therefore relevance in POCUS curricula, with a main focus on infectious diseases. In Malawi, the main indications for ultrasound were weight loss, abdominal pain, and shortness of breath. Abnormal findings were observed in 77% of patients, the most common being enlarged abdominal lymph nodes (n=17), pericardial effusion (n=15), splenic microabscesses (n=15), and pleural effusion (n=14). POCUS led to a change in treatment in 72% of patients. The literature on the various POCUS applications used in Malawi was reviewed, including focused assessment with sonography for HIV-associated TB (FASH), heart, liver, kidney, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and gynaecology. Based on disease prevalence, impact of POCUS on treatment, and technical difficulty, it is proposed that FASH, heart, and DVT are the most relevant POCUS applications in comparable Sub-Saharan African settings and should be incorporated in POCUS curricula.

KEYWORDS:

FASH; HIV; Point-of-care; TB; Ultrasound

PMID:
27836795
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijid.2016.11.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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