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Nutrients. 2016 Nov 8;8(11). pii: E714.

Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands.

Author information

1
Celiac Center Amsterdam, Department Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. t.vangils@vumc.nl.
2
Celiac Center Amsterdam, Department Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.nijeboer@vumc.nl.
3
Celiac Center Amsterdam, Department Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. c.ijssennagger@vumc.nl.
4
Academic Unit of Gastroenterology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK. David.Sanders@sth.nhs.uk.
5
Celiac Center Amsterdam, Department Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. cjmulder@vumc.nl.
6
Celiac Center Amsterdam, Department Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands. g.bouma@vumc.nl.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A growing number of individuals reports symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in the absence of celiac disease. Yet the actual prevalence is not well established.

METHODS:

Between April 2015 and March 2016, unselected adults visiting marketplaces, dental practices and a university in The Netherlands were asked to complete a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported gluten sensitivity (srGS).

RESULTS:

Among the 785 adults enquired, two had celiac disease. Forty-nine (6.2%) reported symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food. These individuals were younger, predominantly female and lived more frequently in urban regions compared with the other respondents. Symptoms reported included bloating (74%), abdominal discomfort (49%) and flatulence (47%). A total of 23 (47%) srGS individuals reported having had tried a gluten-free or gluten-restricted diet. Abdominal discomfort related to fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP)-containing food was more often reported in srGS individuals compared with the other respondents (73.5% vs. 21.7%, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION:

Self-reported GS is common in The Netherlands, especially in younger individuals, females and urban regions, although the prevalence was lower than in a comparable recent UK study. It cannot be excluded that FODMAPs are in part responsible for these symptoms.

KEYWORDS:

FODMAPs; celiac disease; gluten; irritable bowel syndrome; non-celiac gluten sensitivity; non-celiac wheat sensitivity

PMID:
27834802
PMCID:
PMC5133100
DOI:
10.3390/nu8110714
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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