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PLoS One. 2016 Nov 10;11(11):e0166321. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166321. eCollection 2016.

Structural, Functional and Phylogenetic Analysis of Sperm Lysozyme-Like Proteins.

Author information

1
BTIS Sub-DIC, Animal Biotechnology Centre, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, 132001, India.

Abstract

Sperm lysozyme-like proteins belonging to c-type lysozyme family evolved in multiple forms. Lysozyme-like proteins, viz., LYZL2, LYZL3 or SLLP1, LYZL4, LYZL5 and LYZL6 are expressed in the testis of mammals. Not all members of LYZL family have been uniformly and unambiguously identified in the genome and proteome of mammals. Some studies suggested a role of SLLP1 and LYZL4 in fertilization; however, the function of other LYZL proteins is unknown. We identified all known forms of LYZL proteins in buffalo sperm by LC-MS/MS. Cloning and sequence analysis of the Lyzl cDNA showed 38-50% identity at amino acid level among the buffalo LYZL paralogs, complete conservation of eight cysteines and other signature sequences of c-type lysozyme family. Catalytic residues in SLLP1, LYZL4 and LYZL5 have undergone replacement. The substrate binding residues showed significant variation in LYZL proteins. Residues at sites 62, 101, 114 in LYZL4; 101 in SLLP1; 37, 62, and 101 in LYZL6 were more variable among diverse species. Sites 63 and 108 occupied by tryptophan were least tolerant to variation. Site 37 also showed lower tolerance to substitution in SLLP1, LYZL4 and LYZL5, but more variable in non-testicular lysozymes. Models of LYZL proteins were created by homology modeling and the substrate binding pockets were analyzed in term of binding energies and contacting residues of LYZL proteins with tri-N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)3 in the A-B-C and B-C-D binding mode. Except LYZL6, LYZL proteins did not show significant difference in binding energies in comparison to hen egg white lysozyme in the A-B-C mode. (NAG)3 binding energy in the B-C-D mode was higher by 1.3-2.2 kcal/mol than in A-B-C mode. Structural analysis indicated that (NAG)3 was involved in making more extensive interactions including hydrogen bonding with LYZL proteins in B-C-D mode than in A-B-C mode. Despite large sequence divergence among themselves and with respect to c-type lysozymes, substrate binding residues as well as hydrogen bonding network between (NAG)3 and proteins were mostly conserved. LYZL5 in buffalo and other mammalian species contained additional 10-12 amino acid sequence at c-terminal that matched with ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 27. Phylogenetic analysis indicated LYZL2 to be most ancient among all the LYZL proteins and that the evolution of LYZL proteins occurred through several gene duplications preceding the speciation of mammals from other vertebrates as distant as reptiles and amphibians.

PMID:
27832206
PMCID:
PMC5104373
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0166321
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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